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Programme

 

Morning 8:00 - 11:00Afternoon 15:00 - 18:00 Evening
So 11.3. -

18:00  Icebreaker/Dinner

Preparation of virtual boxes
Mo 12.3.

Python & Obspy Introduction (Wassermann)

ObsPy Exercises for Beginners and Advanced Users (Wassermann) - Material in virtual box

Di 13.3.

Seismic source theory: forward and inversion (Dahm, Cesca)

Green's function data base and synthetic seismograms (Heimann) - Material in virtual box

Ski Night (ski movies)
Mi 14.3.

Real world examples: Moment tensor inversions for Mt Etna data (Bean, Lokmer)

Free afternoon
Do 15.3.

Point and kinematic source inversion using Kiwi (Cesca)

KiWi Practical (Cesca)

Mould wine
Fr 16.3.

Snuffler - quick data visualization (Heimann) - Interactive practical

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Suggested Reading:


Fundamental Seismology, Earthquake sources:

Shearer, P., Introduction to Seismology, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press

Stein S., M. Wysession, Introduction to Seismology, earthquakes and Earth Structure, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2003.

Theoretical Seismology

Aki, K., P. Richards, Quantitative Seismology, 2nd Edition, University Science  Books.

Inverse Problems

Menke, W., Geophysical Data Analysis: Discrete Inverse Theory. Reprints available at Amazon.

Tarantola, A., Inverse Problem Theory And Methods For Model Parameter Estimation, SIAM.

LAWSON, C. L. & HANSON, R. J. (1974) Solving least squares problems, ed.,Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Yersey, 340 pp.

ASTER ET AL. (2005): Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, Academic press

TARANTOLA, A. & VALETTE, B. (1982), Inverse problem - quest for information, J. Geophys., 50, 159-170.

TARANTOLA, A. (1984), Inversion of seismic reflection data in the acoustic approximation, Geophysics, 49 (8), 1259-1266.

Specific Source Problems, Kiwi, Rapidinv, Case studies

Müller, G. and Dahm, T., 2000. Fracture morphology of tensile cracks and rupture velocity    J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 723--738.

Cesca, S. and Heimann, S. and Stammler, K. and Dahm, T., 2010. Automated procedure for point and kinematic source inversion at regional distances. J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2009JB006450

Cesca, S. and Heimann, S. and Dahm, T., 2011. Rapid directivity detection by azimuthal spectra inversion. Journal of Seismology, Vol. 15, No 1, 147-164, DOI: 10.1007/s10950-010-9217-4

Dahm, T., and Heimann, S. and Bialowons, W., 2011. A seismological study of shallow weak earthquakes in the urban area of Hamburg city, Germany, and its possible relation to salt dissolution. Natural Hazards, DOI: 10.1007/s11069-011-9716-9Online First

Cesca, T. Dahm, C. Juretzek, D. Kühn. Rupture process of the 7 May 2001 Mw 4.2 Ekofisk induced earthquake. Geophys. J. Int., 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05151.x

Cesca, T. Dahm, A. Rohr, and T. Dahm. Discrimination of induced seismicity by ful moment tensor inverson and decomposition. J. Seismology, submitted.

Heimann, S. 2011. A Robust Method to estimate kinematic earthquake source parameters. PhD thesis, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
http://ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2011/5357/

S. Custódio, S. Cesca, and S. Heimann (2012)
Fast Kinematic Waveform Inversion and Robustness Analysis: Application to the 2007 Mw 5.9 Horseshoe Abyssal Plain Earthquake Offshore Southwest Iberia. BSSA, in press

Cesca, S., Battaglia, J., Dahm, T., Tessmer, E., Heimann, S. and Okubo, P., 2008, Effects of topography and crustal heterogeneities on the source estimation of LP event at Kilauea volcano. Geophys. Journal Int., Vol. 172, p. 1219-1236, 10.111/j.1365-246X.2007.03695.x

ObsPy, Python

Beyreuther, Moritz, Robert Barsch, Lion Krischer, Tobias Megies, Yannik Behr, and Joachim Wassermann (2010), ObsPy: A Python Toolbox for Seismology, SRL, 81(3), 530-533, doi:10.1785/gssrl.81.3.530

Megies, Tobias, Moritz Beyreuther, Robert Barsch, Lion Krischer, and Joachim Wassermann (2011), ObsPy - What Can It Do for Data Centers and Observatories?, Annals Of Geophysics, 54(1), 47-58, doi:10.4401/ag-4838.

References for long period volcanic seismicity and moment tensor inversion

Many relevant referencess related to volcano LP seismicity and MT inversion can be found in Lokmer (2008), Long period seismic activity and moment tensor inversion in volcanic environments: application to Mount Etna, PhD Thesis, University College Dublin, Ireland, pp. 169 (I can e-mail link for pdf file later)

LP source models (crack resonance – under debate!!!):

FERRAZZINI, V. & AKI, K. (1987), Slow waves trapped in a fluid-filled infinite crack: Implication for volcanic tremor, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 9215-9223.

CHOUET, B. A. (1985), Excitation of a buried magmatic pipe: a seismic source model for volcanic tremor, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 1881-1893.

CHOUET, B. A. & JULIAN, B. R. (1985), Dynamics of an expanding fluid-filled crack, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 11184-11198.

CHOUET, B. A. (1986), Dynamics of a fluid-driven crack in three dimensions by the finite difference method, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 13967-13992.

CHOUET, B. A. (1988), Resonance of a fluid-driven crack: Radiation properties and implications fro the source of long-period events and harmonic tremor, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 4375-4400.

CHOUET, B. A. (1996), Long-period volcano seismicity: its source and use in eruption forecasting, Nature, 380, 309-316, 6572.

NEUBERG, J. (2000), Characteristics and causes of shallow seismicity in andesite volcanoes, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 358, 1533-1546.

NEUBERG, J., LUCKETT, R., BAPTIE, B. & OLSEN, K. (2000), Models of tremor and low-frequency earthquake swarms on Montserrat, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 101 (1-2), 83-104.

Single forces and torque in seismic sources:

TAKEI, Y. & KUMAZAWA, M. (1994), Why have the signle force and torque been excluded from seismic source models?, Geophys. J. Int., 118 (1), 20-30.

MT inversion on volcanoes:

De Barros, L., I. Lokmer, C.J. Bean, G. S. O'Brien, G. Saccorotti, J.-P. Metaxian, L. Zuccarello, and D. Patane (2011), Source Mechanism of Long Period events recorded by a high density seismic network during the 2008 eruption on Mt Etna, J. Geophys. Res., Vol.. 116, B01304, doi:10.1029/2010JB007629.

Bean, C.J., I. Lokmer, and G. O'Brien (2008), Influence of near-surface volcanic structure on long-period seismic signals and on moment tensor inversions: Simulated examples from Mount Etna, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B08308, doi:10.1029/2007JB005468

Lokmer, I., C. J. Bean, G. Saccorotti, and D. Patanè, Moment-tensor inversion of LP events recorded on Etna in 2004 using constraints obtained from wave simulation tests, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22316, doi:10.1029/2007GL031902, 2007

Davi, R., G.S. O'Brien, I. Lokmer, C.J. Bean, P. Lesage, M.M. Mora (2010), Moment tensor inversion of explosive long period events recorded on Arenal volcano, Costa Rica, constrained by synthetic tests, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 194, Issue 4, 189-200, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.05.012.

NAKANO, M., KUMAGAI, H., KUMAZAWA, M., YAMAOKA, K. & CHOUET, B. A. (1998), The excitation and characteristic frequency of the long-period volcanic event : An approach based on an inhomogeneous autoregressive model of a linear dynamic system, J. Geophys. Res., 103 (B5), 10031-10046.

NAKANO, M., KUMAGAI, H. & CHOUET, B. A. (2003), Source mechanism of long-period events at Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano, Japan, inferred from waveform inversion of the effective excitation functions, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 122, 149-164.

NAKANO, M. & KUMAGAI, H. (2005), Waveform inversion of volcano-seismic signals assuming possible source geometries, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12302, doi:10.1029/2005GL022666.

NAKANO, M., KUMAGAI, H., CHOUET, B. & DAWSON, P. (2007), Waveform inversion of volcano-seismic signals for an extended source, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B02306, doi:10.1029/2006JB004490.

KUMAGAI, H., CHOUET, B. A. & NAKANO, M. (2002a), Waveform inversion of oscillatory signatures in long-period events beneath volcanoes, J. Geophys. Res., 107 (B11), 2301, doi:10.1029/2001JB001704.

Near-field effect:

Lokmer, I. and C.J. Bean (2010), Properties of the near-fi eld term and its effect on polarisation analysis and source locations of long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) seismic events at volcanoes, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 192, Issues 1-2, 35-47, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.02.008.

VAVRYČUK, V. (1992), Polarization properties of near-field waves in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic media: numerical modelling, 110 (1), 180-190, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1992.tb00720.x.

Topography effect:

RIPPERGER, J., IGEL, H. & WASSERMAN, J. (2003), Seismic wave simulation in the presence of real volcano topography, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 128 (1-3), 31-44.

O'Brien G.S. and Bean C.J. (2009), Volcano topography, structure and intrinsic attenuation: their relative influences on a simulated 3D visco-elastic wavefield, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 183, pp. 123-137.

NEUBERG, J. & POINTER, T. (2000), Effects of volcano topography on seismic broad band waveforms, Geophys. J. Int., 143 (1), 239-248, doi:10.1046/j.1365-246x.2000.00251.x.

Akaike criterion (model selection problem):

O'Brien, G. S., I. Lokmer, and C. J. Bean (2010), Statistical selection of the "best" seismic source mechanisms from inversions of synthetic volcanic long-period events, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B09303, doi:10.1029/2009JB006958.

AKAIKE, H. (1974), A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, AC-19 (6), 716-723.

Moment-tensor decomposition for tensile earthquakes:

VAVRYČUK, V. (2001), Inversion for parameters of tenile earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 106 (B8), 16339-16355 (references therein).

Moment tensor general:

JULIAN, B. R. (1998), Non-double-couple earthquakes: Theory, Reviews of Geophysics, 36 (4), 525-549.

LP location problem:

O'Brien, G. S. , I. Lokmer, L. De Barros, C. J. Bean, G. Saccorotti, J-P Metaxian and D. Patane (2011), Time reverse location of seismic long-period events recorded on Mt Etna, Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 184, Issue 1, 452-462, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04851.x.

De Barros L., C.J. Bean, I. Lokmer, G. Saccorotti, L. Zuccarello, G. O'Brien, J.-P. Metaxian, and D. Patane (2009), Source geometry from exceptionally high resolution Long Period event observations at Mt Etna during the 2008 eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36,  doi : 10.1029/2009GL041273.

Lokmer, I., G. S. O'Brien, D. Stich, and C. J. Bean (2009), Time reversal imaging of synthetic volcanic tremor sources, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12308, doi:10.1029/2009GL038178.

Saccorotti G., I. Lokmer, C.J. Bean, G. Di Grazia and D. Patané, Analysis of sustained long-period activity at Etna Volcano, Italy, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 160, 340-354, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.10.008, 2007.